By Ryan Gingeras,
This book explores the history of organized crime in Turkey and the roles gangs and gangsters have played in the making of the Turkish state and Turkish politics. Turkey’s underworld, which has been at the heart of several devastating scandals over the last few decades, is an institution strongly tied to the country’s long history of opium production and heroin trafficking. As an industry at the center of the Ottoman Empire’s long transition into the modern Turkish Republic, the modern rise of the opium and heroin trade helped to solidify and complicate long-standing relationships between state officials and criminal syndicates.
Such relationships produced not only ongoing patterns of corruption, but also helped to fuel and enable repeated acts of state violence. Drawing upon new archival sources from the United States and Turkey, including declassified documents from the Prime Minister’s Archives of the Republic of Turkey and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Heroin, Organized Crime, and the Making of Modern Turkey provides a critical window on how a handful of criminal syndicates played supporting roles in the making of national security politics in the contemporary Turkey. The rise of the “Turkish mafia,” from its origins in the late Ottoman period to the so-called Susurluk and Ergenekon scandals, is a story that mirrors troubling elements in the republic’s establishment and emphasizes the transnational and comparative significance of narcotics and gangs in the country’s past.
|Print publication date: 2014||Print ISBN-13: 9780198716020|
|Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2014||DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716020.001.0001|